During the withdrawal negotiations, the Irish border issue was one of three areas that required a specific stream of negotiations to reach the necessary withdrawal agreement before future relations between the UK and the EU could be agreed. [41] [42] [43] The Irish and British governments as well as EU officials have stated that they do not want a hard border in Ireland, given the historical and social “sensitivities” that cross the island. [44] The Northern Ireland Protocol, negotiated by British Prime Minister Boris Johnson last October, is part of the withdrawal agreement (which some have described as a “divorce agreement”) with which the UK left the EU on 31 January 2020. In the following months, the British Parliament refused three times to ratify the agreement. In July 2019, Boris Johnson became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and leader of the Conservative Party. On 28 August 2019,[39] the Johnson government refused to negotiate with Brussels unless the backstop was interrupted, which the EU did not say. [40] AND RAPPELLE that, on 8 December 2017, the joint report by EU negotiators and the UK Government on progress in phase 1 of the Article 50 negotiations on the [Eu-Eu Treaty] on the UK`s orderly withdrawal from the European Union presents three distinct scenarios. Protection of North-South cooperation and prevention of a hard border, but that this protocol is based on the third scenario, based on the total alignment with the rules of the internal market of the Union and the customs union which, now or in the future, support North-South cooperation, the economy on all the islands and the protection of the 1998 agreement, without an alternative regulation being adopted to implement another scenario… [32] Therefore, if one of the proposals contained in the Internal Market Act that contradicts the withdrawal agreement did become law, it would violate the government`s international obligations. Kit Malthouse was awarded as the organizer of an agreement between the Conservative Party`s limited factions on Brexit on 29 January 2019. [70] The proposal consisted of two parts.

Plan A was the re-opening of the withdrawal agreement with the EU and the renegotiation of the backstop. Britain`s transition period would also be extended, giving more time to agree on future relations. Plan B looked like a managed “no deal.” The Malthouse compromise was seen by some Leavers as a complement to the Graham Brady amendment: in short, it was intended to replace the backstop with another that would either allow a smooth transition to an agreement or create a triple safety net if there was no agreement.