As highlighted in a report on shastri`s first year as prime minister, the linguistic violence in Tamil Nadu, the youth problems in Orissa, the return of presidential rule in Kerala, the persistent quarrels in Uttar Pradesh, the persistent demand for a Punjabi-Suba and the persistent masquerade in Kashmir were some of the question marks in the cross-section of the nation, of the region and the institution for the Prime Minister. On the international stage too, Shastri had to navigate between a muted movement of non-aligned, China`s now nuclear challenge, a change of Soviet leadership, a new leader in Pakistan, President Ayub Khan and an Anglo-American-Commonwealth combination, distracted on various topics like Vietnam and Southern Rhodesia. Rightly so, for a person whose first foreign policy breakthrough went to Nepal, the first fruit of Shastri`s diplomacy was the agreement with Ceylon at the time on people of Indian origin – a confirmation of the importance of the neighborhood. In 1964, Shastri signed an agreement with Sri Lankan Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike on the status of Indian Tamils in Sri Lanka, then called Ceylon. [52] This agreement is also referred to as the Sirima Shastri Pact or the Bandaranaike Shastri Pact. In accordance with the Tashkent Declaration, ministerial talks were held on 1 and 2 March 1966. Despite the fact that these discussions were unproductive, diplomatic exchanges continued throughout the spring and summer. No results were achieved as a result of these discussions, due to differences of opinion on the Kashmir issue. The news of the Tashkent declaration shocked the people of Pakistan who expected more concessions from India than they received. Things got even worse when Ayub Khan refused to speak out and went to solitary confinement instead of announcing the reasons for signing the agreement.

Protests and riots broke out in different locations across Pakistan. [3] To appease the anger and concerns of the people, Ayub Khan decided to take the matter to the people on January 14, 1966 by addressing the nation. It was the difference on the Tashkent declaration that eventually led to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto`s withdrawal from Ayub`s government, who later founded his own party called Pakistan People`s Party. Although Ayub Khan was able to satisfy the concerns of the people, the Tashkent declaration severely tarnished his image and was one of the factors that led to his downfall. [8] An agreement signed in the Soviet city of Tashkent by Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan to end the Second Indo-Pakistani War for Kashmir. The two countries agreed not only to withdraw their troops from the territory of the other and recover their prisoners of war, but also to begin to normalize diplomatic relations. Unfortunately, Shastri`s death, just hours after the signing of the agreement, made it more difficult for India and Pakistan to begin friendly relations. The agreement has done little to ease the deep hostility between the two countries since their independence in 1947 and did not prevent the outbreak of new hostilities in 1970. Under the agreement, 600,000 Indian Tamils were to be repatriated, while 375,000 were to obtain Sri Lankan citizenship. This scheme should be completed by 31 October 1981. However, after Shastri`s death, India had received only 300,000 repatriated Tamils until 1981, while Sri Lanka had granted citizenship to only 185,000 citizens (plus another 62,000 born after 1964).

Subsequently, India refused to consider further citizenship applications and said the 1964 agreement had expired. [52] The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on January 10, 1966, which resolved the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War. . . .